IBRAHIM’S AS FAMILY
When Ibrahim AS left his people for the sake of Allah, with his wife Sarah, who was barren and he had no child, with him was his nephew Lut AS, the son of his brother Haran, about whom Allah said And Lut believed him (Qur’an 29:26). Allah had granted Ibrahim AS pious sons and made his progeny the Prophethood and the Book. No prophet was ever sent after him but was from his progeny, and no Book was ever sent down but it was to one of these prophets from his progeny. It was an honour and favour from Allah to him as he had to leave his country, his people and his relatives for His sake.
It is reported that after journeying for some time, Ibrahim AS and the small group who accompanied him reached Harran, according to Allah’s words,
And We delivered him and Lut to the land which We had blessed for the worlds. (Qur’an 21:71)
This land is what was known in earlier times as Bilad ash-Sham, the land of Syria. Not to be confused with present-day Syria, the Sham of old compound comprised the territory that was known as Palestine prior to the portioning of the former Ottoman Empire by the Allies after WWI into present-day states of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Israel. This is an area especially blessed by and dear to Allah – the land of Ibrahim AS and the prophet descended from him peace be upon them all, a land of unique spiritual significance and sanctity.
After some time of settling in Harran, Ibrahim AS, accompanied by Sarah, went toward Yemen. However, because Yemen was in the grip of famine, they did not settle there but turned northward to Egypt.
After leaving Egypt, Ibrahim AS, accompanied by Sarah and her Egyptian maid-servant returned to Syria and settled there permanently. Years passed, still no child was born to the prophet and his wife, who had by then become elderly. And eventually at Sarah’s suggestion, Ibrahim AS married Hagar, in the hope that she would be able to bear him a successor in prophethood.
Ibrahim AS had prayed to Allah for righteous children. (Qur’an 37:100) And in response, Allah the Most Gracious, gave Ibrahim AS the good tidings of a son, informing, even before that son’s birth, that he would be a forbearing boy (Qur’an 37:101). By a Divine will, Hagar, the younger wife of Ibrahim AS became the mother of a son, Ismail AS, while Sarah remained painfully barren and childless.
At the time of Ismail’s AS birth, Ibrahim AS was 86 years old and it was 13 years before Is’haq AS was born. When Ismail AS was born, Allah revealed to Ibrahim AS giving the glad tidings of the birth of another son Is’haq from Sarah. Ibrahim AS fell down in prostration to Allah. Allah said to him, “I have answered your prayer for Ismail, and I have blessed him and will greatly increase his number. He will be the father of 12 rulers, and I will make him into a great nation.”
HAGAR AND ISMAIL AS IN MECCA
When Hagar gave birth to Ismail, Sarah felt ill towards her, and asked Ibrahim AS to hide her face from her. Ibrahim AS therefore took Hagar and her son Ismail and started his journey towards the place where Mecca is situated today. We must be careful about accepting such a simplistic explanation for Ibrahim’s action, for it is unimaginable that a prophet, especially of Ibrahim’s AS distinguished rank, would be under the domination of his wife or make such a grave decision due to her insistence. While Sarah’s feelings may have been something of a factor, it cannot have been the real reason for Ibrahim’s action. It is said that Hagar’s child was, at that time still a suckling baby.
It is clear from the subsequent events to follow that Ibrahim AS did what he did, as he did everything else, by the command of his Lord. Perhaps this may have been what the divine words of Allah meant:
Ibrahim was tried by his Lord with commands and he fulfilled them. (Quran 2:124)
Ibrahim AS took Hagar and Ismail AS on a journey, till he brought them to the House near a tree on the well of Zamzam, the highest place in the mosque.
This was the same spot to which Adam AS had come thousands of years earlier, and upon which Allah most High had sent down His Sacred House, with its jewel from Paradise, and around which the Ark of Nuh AS had floated in circumambulation. It was the place where Ibrahim AS in years to come, would construct the Holy Kaabah, a place of sacred pilgrimage, around which the city of Mecca would arise. It was, moreover, the place where, many centuries later, the most perfect of all creation, Allah’s Messenger Muhammad, may His peace and blessings be upon him, would be born and pass the first 53 years of his life.
When Ibrahim AS left them there and walked back, Hagar clinched his cloth and said, “Ibrahim! Where are you going, leaving us here alone? We do not have sufficient food and drink.” Ibrahim AS did not answer her. When she persisted and found no answer, then she asked, “Has Allah commanded you for that?” He said, “Yes.” She said, “Then Allah will not then leave us to perish.”
Allah’s command had come to him and Ibrahim AS did not will otherwise than his Lord willed. And how amazingly steadfast Hagar’s faith was. Her accepting Ibrahim’s AS decision without a protest makes it clear that she too had absolute confidence in the rightness of Allah’s decree, as well as the correctness of whatever her husband would decide.
Ibrahim AS went on till he came to the narrow pass of the mountain, where he could hardly be seen by them. He stopped there and faced the House, raised his hands and invoked his prayer.
Our Lord, I have settled some of my descendants in an uncultivated valley near Your sacred House, our Lord, that they may establish prayer. So make hearts among the people incline toward them and provide for them from the fruits that they might be grateful. (Qur’an 14:37)
These words make it clear that at that Ibrahim AS was fully aware of the spiritual reality of the place where he was leaving his family, and of his and their future role in calling the people of that region to Allah. Indeed, because of his nearness to his Lord, perhaps he was aware of much more than that – including that the most perfect mong all mankind, his descendent Muhammad SAW through Ismail AS, would be born and dwell on this sacred soil.
HAGAR’S SEARCH FOR WATER
In those days there was none in Mecca, neither was there any water. He left there, and left with them a leather bag containing some dates, and a water-skin containing some water. Hagar continued nursing Ismail AS and drinking from that water. When all the water in the water-skin got used up, she as well her son became thirsty. She started looking at him tossing in agony. She left him, for she could not look at him anymore. She found that the Safa was the nearest mountain for her to climb up and look for help. She stood on it and looked around it. But she could see no one. She descended from Safa, and when she reached the bottom of the valley, she tucked up her robe and ran in the valley like a person in distress and touble. She ran till she crossed the valley and reached another mountain called Marwah where she stood on it and started looking around in the hope that she might find someone. But she could not find anyone.
Then she climbed on Safa and looked and looked, but could not see anyone until she had completed 7 rounds.
When she reached Marwah in the last round, she heard a voice and became quiet. Then she listened and heard it again, and said “You who have made me hear your voice – do you have any help to offer me?”
Then she saw Jibrael AS at the site of Zamzam. And he dug with his heel (or wing) until the water gushed forth. And she began to make a trough around it, using her hands, and began scooping up the water into her waterskin. Each time after she cooped up the water with her hand, the water would gush out.
Ibn Abbas RA narrated Prophet Muhammad SAW as saying, “May Allah have mercy upon Umm Ismail. If she had left it without trying to control it, or if she had not scooped up the water of Zamzam, Zamzam would have been a spring flowing above the ground.”
Then she drank and nursed her son. Then Jibrael AS said to her, “Do not be afraid of perishing, indeed this is the site of the House of Allah, which will be built by this boy and his father, indeed Allah does not let his people perish.”
And the site of the House was on a high part of the ground like a hill, so that when the torrents of rain came, they flowed to its right and its left.
It is said by the people of the Tawrah that Allah commanded Ibrahim AS to circumcise Ismail AS and all those who lived with him of slaves and other, and so he did. The age of Ismail was 13 years. This was to fulfil the command of Allah. It shows that circumcision was obligatory upon him and therefore obligatory on all men.
THE POPULATING OF MECCA
Gradually, Bedouin tribes of Jurhum passed by the spot where Hagar and her son Ismail AS were settled near the Zamzam well. They asked Hagar for permission to camp near her and she said yes, as long as they didn’t take rights over the water. She liked companionship as she was alone with Ismail AS. The Bedouins and their families stayed and remained with them until some of them became settlers there.
And the boy grew up and learned Arabic from them. And he was valued by them and pleased them when he became a young man, and when he reached the age of maturity they married him to one of their women. (Bukhari)
IBRAHIM’S AS VISION
Ibrahim’s AS life was marked by extraordinary events, and by tests and trials that would easily have destroyed a person of lesser faith.
It had been close to 10 years since Ibrahim AS had left his wife and baby in Mecca in the care of Allah. After a 2 month journey, he was surprised to find Mecca a lot different from how he had left it. The joy of reunion was soon to be interrupted by a vision which was to be the ultimate test of his faith.
When Ismail AS had reached the age of doing a man’s work side by side with his father, meaning that he became mature and was capable of working with his father, a vision came to Ibrahim AS, ordering him to cut the throat of his son, and prophets’ dreams were revelations.
It was a tremendous trial from Allah Most High, to His Friend Ibrahim AS. To slaughter his beloved son who come to him at an advanced age, after ordering him to take him and his mother to a distant land.
With his pure understanding of the truth, he knew that his Lord, who is endlessly merciful and compassionate, He has no need or desire for blood to be sacrificed and offered to Him. As a prophet, he also knew better than anyone else that taking an innocent life is among the most terrible of crimes – and what could be a graver evil or more horrible crime than the killing of a child by his own father?
At the same time, there was the assurance he had been granted when he left Hagar and Ismail AS in the barren desert of the child’s living, not dying.
Ibrahim AS did not question Allah’s order nor dispute with His Will. Rather, he understood his sacrifice of his son as something that must happen. Thus it was that, once again, when his Lord said to him, “Submit”, he said “I have submitted [in Islam] to the Lord of the worlds.” (Qur’an 2:131)
He then asked his son to see how he responded to this order saying,
O my son, indeed I have seen in a dream that I [must] sacrifice you, so see what you think.” (Qur’an 37:102)
The forbearing son made his father immensely happy by saying,
“O my father, do as you are commanded. You will find me, if Allah wills, of the steadfast.” (Qur’an 37:102)
Young as he was, Ismail AS was trained in perfect obedience – firstly to his Lord and secondly to his father, a prophet of tremendous spiritual stature. If this is what his father understood as an order, it must be carried out, regardless of how it would affect him personally. Deciding otherwise was not even a possibility for young Ismail and his father, peace be upon them both. Perhaps for this reason, Allah speaks of Ismail AS as a forbearing boy (Qur’an 37:101) and mentions him as being among the patient and among the righteous (Qur’an 21:85-86).
THE ACT OF SACRIFICE
Ibrahim AS and his young son set out to fulfil the vision, carrying a length of rope and a sharp knife. Ibn Abbas RA reports that when the two of them passed the place where Hagar hastened between Safa and Marwah, Shaytan appeared to Ibrahim AS and ran after him. But Ibrahim AS outran him and continued on his way, accompanied by archangel Jibrael AS.
When Ibrahim AS reached the site at which the stone pillar of Aqabah stands in Mina, Shaytan came to him again. Ibrahim AS threw 7 pebbles at him to drive him away and continued toward his destination. At the side of the middle stone pillar, Shaytan reappeared, and again Ibrahim AS threw 7 pebbles at him. Finally when Shaytan realised that Ibrahim AS was firm and intent upon carrying out Allah’s command, he left him alone.
Soon the father and son reached the place for carrying out the sacrifice, which is believed to be on Mount Thabir near Mecca.
It is reported that Ismail AS was wearing a white shirt. “Oh my father,” he said, “I have no garment to be buried in except this, so take it off me and bury me in it.”
What that much-tried father and son, may Allah’s endless peace and blessings be upon them, felt as they both surrendered their wills to Allah, and as Ibrahim AS put Ismail AS in place for the sacrifice, is a secret that will forever be between them and their Lord.
Ibn Kathir explains the events that followed.
Allah says, And when they had both submitted and he put him down upon his forehead, (Qur’an 37:103). It is said that he was about to cut his throat in such a way as not to see his face. Others say that he started cutting with the knife at his throat but it would not cut at all. It is said that Allah inserted a layer of brass between the knife and his throat.
Then Allah Most High called out to Ibrahim AS that the objective of his testing and obedience, and his willingness to carry out his Lord’s command has been achieved. (Qur’an 37:104-105) That is why Allah says Indeed, this was the clear trial. And He ransomed him with a great sacrifice, (Qur’an 3:106-107) and replaced him with something which was easy for him to sacrifice in the place of his son. The majority of commentators say that it was a white ram, wide-eyed and with big horns, which he saw stuck in the bushes.
The term “great sacrifice” obviously refers to much more than the specific animal that was provided as a ransom for the life of Ismail AS. Rather, it relates to the fact that Allah ordained the offering of animal sacrifices on the same day throughout the world to be an established Sunnah up to the Day of Resurrection, thereby keeping alive the memory of Ibrahim’s AS unparalleled faithfulness and devotion to His command.
Thus did Allah try His Friend with another almost unimaginable trial. Finding him surrendered, He relieved him and restored his son to him, to become his successor in prophethood and the ancestor of the Seal of the Prophets, Muhammad, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him and upon them.
And Allah praises Ibrahim AS with the highest praise and honour in the Qur’an verses 37:105-111.
In the story of Ibrahim’s AS sacrifice, we learn that the way of those who are nearest to Allah, the prophets (anbiya), messengers (rasul) and holy people (salehin or awliya). It is the way of perfection: the total surrender of their own personal wills and unswerving commitment to carrying out the Will of their Lord, which is communicated to their innermost being, without question, without reasons, even if it goes against logic and common sense, against all they cherish, against everything that is accepted as reasonable and right.
It is this epitome of submission and trust in Allah which hundreds of millions of Muslims reenact every year during the days of Hajj on Eid-ul-Adha – Celebration of Sacrifice.
THE BUILDING OF THE KAABAH
Ibrahim AS then returned to Palestine, and upon doing so, he was visited by angels who give him and Sarah the good news of a son, Is’haq. ,At some time after the birth of his second son Is’haq, Ibrahim AS, now very old and somewhat weak, visited Ismail AS.
Ibn Abbas narrates that Ibrahim AS stayed away from his family in Mecca as long Allah willed. Then afterwards he came while Ismail was sharpening his arrows under a spreading tree near Zamzam. And when he saw him, he stood up to greet him, and they did as a father and son do.
Ibrahim AS said, “O Ismail, Allah has given me a command.”
Ismail AS said, “Then do what your Lord has commanded you.”
Ibrahim AS said, “And you will help me?”
Ismail AS said, “And I will help you.”
Ibrahim AS said, “Then indeed, Allah has commanded me to build a House here,” and he pointed to a hillock which was higher than the land surrounding it.
Then they, Ibrahim and Ismail, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon them, build the foundation of the House. And Ismail AS brought the stones and Ibrahim AS built. They went on building until they had made tawaf around it while both of them were saying, “Our Lord, accept [this] from us. Indeed You are the Hearing, the Knowing.” (Qur’an 2:127)
Then it is said, when Ibrahim AS had completed the building of the House except for the last stone, Jibrael AS brought him the Black Stone, al Hajar Al-Aswad, and set it in its place.
This was the sacred stone that had come down from Paradise at the time of Adam AS, which to this day remains fixed in one of the corners of the Sacred Kaabah. Several hadith speak of the singular love and respect that Prophet Muhammad SAW showed for this relic of Paradise, whenever he made tawaf around the Kaabah, as Muslims do to this day, following his blessed Sunnah.
Allah then gave His Friend orders concerning His sacred House. “Do not associate anything with Me and purify My House for those who perform Tawaf and those who stand [in prayer] and those who bow and prostrate. (Qur’an 22:26)
The Sacred House was to be kept clean of everything impure and foul, above all else, of the pollution of idols, which are considered filthy and abominable in Judaism and Christianity as well as Islam.
Thus the father and son were reunited to establish the honoured House of Allah, the centre of worship, to which direction people would turn their face when offering prayers, and make it a site of pilgrimage. There are many beautiful phrases in the Qur’an describing the sanctity of the Kaabah and the purpose of its building.
THE PRAYERS OF IBRAHIM AS
The security of this sacred city and the faith of his descendants who would dwell in it was in Ibrahim’s AS heart as he addressed his beloved Lord.
“My Lord, make this city [Mecca] secure and keep me and my sons away from worshipping idols. My Lord, indeed they have led astray many among the people. So whoever follows me – then he is of me; and whoever disobeys me – indeed, You are [yet] Forgiving and Merciful. (Qur’an 14:35-36)
And Ibrahim AS poured out his gratitude for the blessing of the two sons who had been granted to him so late in life in response to his supplication. He prayed for himself, his progeny, his parents and all believers. (Qur’an 14:39-41)
While building the House, Ibrahim AS prayed for the safety of Mecca and the provisioning of its people. (Qur’an 2:126)
Allah most High was to grant His Friend’s prayer for the security of Mecca. The entire territory of Mecca to this day is a sanctuary, a safe haven, where all living things (except those that are harmful or dangerous) are secure from harm as mentioned in Qur’an 2:157 and 3:97. At the same time Allah declared punishment for whoever intends deviation or wrongdoings (Qur’an 22:25).
Allah also granted Ibrahim’s AS prayer for the provision of his descendants. In time to come Mecca was to become a centre of trade whose commerce flourished through the journeys of merchant caravans to the neighbouring lands in the north and south.
Ibrahim’s AS prayers for the purity of the faith of his descendants who would live in Mecca and for being shown their rites of their faith and the practice of salat – all these were answered in time to come. And most important of all, the Most Merciful Allah granted His Friend’s supplication that He would send among his descendants in the sacred territory a messenger from among themselves, who would recite to them His verses, and teach them the scripture and wisdom and purify them (Qur’an 2:129).
Some 2500 years later, the last and greatest of all prophets, Muhammad SAW, was to become the fulfilment of Ibrahim’s AS prayer – a messenger from among the inhabitants of Mecca who brought Allah’s final revelation and guidance, not only to the people of his city and region, but to the entire world.
ESTABLISHMENT OF HAJJ
Ibn Kathir reports that when he had completed building the Sacred House, his Lord gave Ibrahim AS a further command:
And proclaim the Hajj to mankind (Qur’an 22:27), that pilgrimage to the House might be an obligation on all who follow his path up to the Last Day.
Ibrahim AS stood, either upon the stone knownn as the Station of Ibrahim or on top of the hill of Safa or the summit of Mount Abu Qubays, and called, “O people, there is a house of your Lord here, so come here for Hajj.” And it is said his voice reached the whole world, to the extent that unborn children in their mothers’ wombs heard the sound, and all the people who were destined to make Hajj in the future called out, “Labbayk!” – Here I am Allah!
Ibrahim AS was then taught the rites of Hajj by Jibrael AS. These rites were the same as those that, centuries later, the Last Messenger Muhammad SAW, would teach the first community of Muslims, in obedience to Allah’s order. Those rites have not changed up to the present day, nor will they change as long as the world continues. Thus, each Muslim who takes part in the Hajj is following the Sunnah of two of the greatest prophets of all time – Ibrahim AS, the Friend of Allah, and the Seal of Prophets Muhammad, Allah’s best blessings and peace be upon them both.
After leaving Hagar and the infant Ismail AS in the desert of Mecca, Ibrahim AS returned home to his wife Sarah. However, Sarah remained barren, and the years passed until she and Ibrahim AS were very aged.
It is said that Ibrahim AS lived in Beersheba in the land of Palestine, which is the desert portion of Syria. There he dug a well and built a house of prayer, but when some of its people harmed him, he left them and went to live between Ramlah and Jerusalem.
There again he dug a well and settled. Eventually, he became prosperous, blessed with plentiful provision, wealth and servants. And he was very fond of showing hospitality to guests.
One day three handsome strangers, whom Ibrahim AS naturally enough took to be travellers, appeared at his door. When they entered upon him and said, “Salam.”, the greetings of believers. (Qur’an 15:52)
Surprised by their presence, Ibrahim AS said, “Indeed, we are fearful of you.”
Then, desiring to give his guests his best hospitality, he did not delay in bringing [them] a roasted calf. (Qur’an 11:69)
When he saw that they would not eat, he mistrusted them and felt apprehensive of them. (Qur’an 11:70) And he expressed his feelings of fear frankly to them. (Qur’an 15:52)
But they reassured him and made known to him that they were angels – Jibrael, Mikael and Israfil AS – who had been sent by their Lord to run a two-fold errand.
They said, “Fear not. We have been sent to the people of Lut.” And his wife was standing, and she smiled. Then We gave her good tidings of Is’haq and after Is’haq, Yaakub. (Qur’an 11:70-71)
The angels had a second errand which concerned Ibrahim AS personally – and equally – to his wife. And they made it known.
“Indeed, we give you good tidings of a learned boy.” (Qur’an 15:53)
Ibrahim AS reacted with natural disbelief. Did they really mean such good tidings of a son at such an old age?
Ibrahim AS rejoiced, as it became clear to him that this announcement had in truth come from none other than Allah Himself. Impossible though it might be according to human experience, it was evident that he was now destined to become the father of a second son – this time from the barren, aged Sarah.
Sarah reacted with disbelief and unbearable sadness. But the angels reassured her. (Qur’an 51:29-30)
The seemingly impossibility of the thing kept Sarah from trusting the news she had been given. She cried in the bitter agony of an aged woman who has remained barren throughout her life.
She said, “Woe to me! Shall I give birth while I am an old woman and this, my husband, is an old man? Indeed, this is an amazing thing!” (Qur’an 11:72)
The angels responded, reminding them of Allah’s Mercy and Blessings upon them and people of the house. (Qur’an 11:73)
Thus Allah gave Ibrahim AS and Sarah the good tidings of Is’haq, a prophet from among the righteous (Qur’an 37:112). Then, as if that were not enough, they were also informed of a grandson to come, according to Allah’s words,
Then We gave her good tidings of Isaac and after Isaac, Jacob. (Qur’an 11:71)
Through the birth of Is’haq AS, Allah Most Gracious once again wrought a miracle for His Friend, contravening all known natural laws. And according to his endlessly wise, all-embracing divine plan, the second thus granted to Ibrahim AS and Sarah in their advanced old age was, like his half-brother Ismail AS, destined to become a vital link in the future of revealed religion.
Although Is’haq AS is mentioned in the Qur’an 16 times, nothing his reported concerning his life-story.
After Is’haq AS, the prophetic line continued with Yaakub AS, who was to become known as Isra’il, as mentioned in the Qur’anic verses (6:84, 19:49-50, 21:71-73, 29:27, 38:45-47).
Yaakub AS is mentioned in the Qur’an 20 times. However nothing of his life-story is reported except in connection with his illustrious son, Yusuf AS.
DEATH OF IBRAHIM AS
There is no mention in the Qur’an of Ibrahim’s AS remaining years. But some classical commentators confirm that Sarah preceded him in death and that she was buried in a field which Ibrahim AS ploughed in Hebron, Palestine.
Commentators confirm that after Sarah, he married a Canaanite woman named Keturah and she bore him 6 sons, from which Prophet Shu’ayb AS is said to have been a descendant of Ibrahim AS. Thus Ibrahim AS was ultimately the father of 8 sons, including Ismail and Is’haq AS, peace and blessings be upon them all.
It is reported in a hadith that one day he set out to find someone to invite to his house but found no one. When he returned home, he found a stranger inside his house.
“O servant of Allah, how is it that you entered m house without my permission?” Ibrahim AS asked.
“I entered by permission of its Lord,” the stranger replied.
“Who are you, then?” Ibrahim AS asked
“I am the Angel of Death,” he replied, “and my Lord has sent me one of His servants to hive him good news that He has chosen him as His friend.”
“And who is he?” Ibrahim AS asked. “For, by Allah if you tell me about him, I will go and visit him even if he is in the most remote place, and I become his neighbour until death separates us.”
“That servant is you”, the angel replied
“For what reason has my Lord chosen me as His friend?” Ibrahim AS asked.
“Because you give to people and do not ask anything of them, was the reply.
Ibrahim AS charged his sons to firmly keep to the pure faith appointed for them by their Lord, and so did Yaakub AS after him, saying,
“O my sons, indeed Allah has chosen for you this religion, so do not die except while you are Muslims.” (Qur’an 2:132) Ibrahim’s AS mortal remains are buried in a cave under the floor of the Mosque of Ibrahim in Hebron, a city known in Arabic as “al-Khalil” after Khalil ar Rahman, the Friend of Allah, upon whom people of faith perpetually invoke Allah’s highest blessings and peace.
After Ibrahim’s AS passing from this life, his pure faith was continued and carried on by two prophet sons, Ismail and Is’haq AS, from whom two lines of prophethood were to descend and after them by Yaakub AS.
May Allah’s best blessings and peace be upon noble Prophet Ibrahim AS, his sons Ismail and Is’haq AS, his grandson, Yaakub AS, his great grandson Yusuf, his later descendants Musa and Isa AS, and upon all the prophets in his line, up to the last of them all, Allah’s illustrious Messenger, Muhammad SAW.
Is it any wonder that two of the greatest Prophets, the Friend of Allah and the Seal of Prophets, are honoured in the same breath, by Muslims, in every obligatory prayer, every single day:
اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ
كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ
.إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ
اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ، وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ
كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ
.إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ
“O Allah, let Your Peace come upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as you have brought peace to Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim. Truly, You are Praiseworthy and Glorious. Allah, bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, as you have blessed Ibrahim and his family. Truly, You are Praiseworthy and Glorious.”
Acknowledgement: Most of the information for this work has been obtained from:
“A History of Prophets of Islam”, Volume I, by Suzanne Haneef
“Stories of the Prophets”, by Ibn Kathir (Translation by Rashad Ahmad Azami)
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